Quit India Movement August 9, 1942. The entire Indian nation in Mahatma Gandhi had started to call. There are two movements related to India’s independence which is the most important in the history – the first ‘freedom struggle of 1857’ and the second ‘Quit India Movement of 1942’. Against British rule, Mahatma Gandhi ran a big ‘civil disobedience movement’ to liberate India soon. After the failure of ‘Cripps Mission’, Gandhi decided to start another big movement. This movement was given the name of ‘Quit India Movement’.
Great fight of independence
The Quit India Movement or August Revolution was the last great fight of the Indian independence movement, which shook the foundation of British rule. After returning from Cripps Mission with empty hand Indian realized their deception. On the other hand, due to World War II conditions were becoming very serious. Due to war, The price of all commodities was increased. the People had begun to spread discontent against the British. Seeing the growing dominance of Japan on July 5, 1942, Gandhiji wrote in Harijan “Angels! Do not give up for India to Japan, but leave the country systematically for Indians”.
Cripps Mission Arrives
At this time World War II had spread, and British forces were losing in South-East Asia. At one time it was also believed that Japan would attack India. Friends were constantly pressurizing the country, America, Russia, and China on Britain, that they take the initiative to get the support of Indians in the hour of crisis. The British government did not want to give full independence to India. They wanted to keep the security of India within his own hands and at the same time, the Governor-General ‘s veto power was in favor of keeping the same as before. Indian representatives dismissed all the proposals of the Cripps Mission altogether.
Following the failure of the Cripps Mission, the meeting of ‘Indian National Congress Committee’ was held in Bombay on August 8, 1942. It was decided that the British would have to leave India in any case. India will protect itself and will be against imperialism and fascism. If the British leave India, then a temporary government will be formed. The ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’ will be run against British rule and its leader will be Gandhiji.
Challenging the position of Gandhi, the Congress did not accept his proposal. Gandhi said,
I will raise a big movement from the Congress party of the country.
July 14, 1942, in Wardha meeting Gandhi got full support to the idea. The Congress Working Committee in Wardha passed the Quit India’ proposal. Before the public announcement of the movement, on August 1, 1942, ‘Tilak Din’ was celebrated in Allahabad. On that occasion, Jawaharlal Nehru said,
We are going to play with fire, we are going to use the double-edged sword, whose injury can also fall on us.
All India Congress Meeting
During the agitation, on August 8, 1942, the meeting of ‘All India Congress’ was held in the historic ‘Gowalia Tank’ of Bombay. Gandhiji’s historic ‘Quit India’ proposal was accepted by the Congress Working Committee on 8 August 1942 after some amendments. Together with the proposal for the movements, the government has been challenged to take immediate action. It was said that “With the declaration of independence of India a permanent government will be formed and an independent India will become a friend of the United Nations.
The last part of the proposal was- ” The country has expressed its desire against the imperialist government. Now there is no justification for returning from that point. Therefore, the committee accepts the offer of nonviolent, mass struggle under the leadership of Gandhiji on the broader ground.
Mantra ‘do or die’
In this historic conference of Congress, Mahatma Gandhi gave a speech about 70 minutes. In his Speech, he said, “I give you a mantra, do it or die, which means that the people of India should try every way for the freedom of the country.” About Gandhiji, Pattabhi Sitaramayya has written that ” Gandhiji was giving speeches on that day inspired by the inspiration of the incarnation of Avatar and the Prophet. “Those people who do not know how to sacrifice, can not get freedom.” Gandhiji was a non-violent non-violinist, but to liberate the country, he gave the original mantra of ‘do or die’. The suppressive, financially robbery, expansionist and racist of English rulers Against policies, he has ordered ‘ Quit India Movement was teased. Gandhiji had said that-
“A country can not be free until people living in it trust in each other.”
These words of Gandhi Ji had a magic effect on the people of India and they jumped into freedom struggle with new zeal, new courage, new resolutions, new faith, determination, and confidence. The sound of ‘do or die’ in the corner of the country and around these words became the slogan.
Arrest of politicians
On 9th August, all the important Congress leaders were arrested under ‘Operation Zero Hour’. Gandhiji was kept in ‘Aga Khan Mahal’ in Poona and other members of the Congress Working Committee in the fort of Ahmednagar. By declaring Congress an illegal organization, the British government confiscated the property of this institution and simultaneously banned the procession. The anger of the public became pervasive by this act of the government. The people took out the procession and held meetings.
This was the first movement during the independence movement. Which reached the height even without any leader. When the government tried to suppress the movement, the movement’s attitude changed and became raucous. Rail tracks in many places were uprooted and the stations were set on fire. The workers in Bombay, Ahmedabad, and Jamshedpur jointly organized a massive strike. United Provinces in Ballia and Bombay in Satara, Bengal in Midnapore and Bihar ‘Quit India movement in some parts of’ Temporary governments were established at the time of In these self-proportional parallel governments, the government remained in power for a long time. The rebellion here was led by Nana Patil.The first parallel government was formed under the leadership of Chitu Pandey in Ballia.
In the Midnapore district of Bengal, the National Government in Tamluk or Tamralipti continued till 1944 AD. The government here is known as the ethnic government. This ethnic government, formed under the leadership of Satish Sawant, gave subsidies to the schools and made an Armed Electro Corps Military Organization. The most affected areas were Bengal, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madras, and Bombay. Leaders like Jaiprakash Narayan, Ram Manohar Lohia, and Aruna Asif Ali led the movement by staying underground. In Bombay, Usha Mehta and some of her colleagues broadcast the Congress Radio for several months. Ram Manohar Lohia used to speak regularly on the radio. November 1, 1942.
The impact of Gandhi ji
The ‘Quit India Movement’ was originally a mass movement, in which a person of every caste of India was involved. This movement attracted youth to a large number of them. The youth left their colleges and they started adopting the path of jail. While the Congress leaders were in jail, at the same time, Mohammed Ali Jinnah and his companions of the Muslim League started spreading their influence area. In the same year, the Muslim League got the chance to make its mark in Punjab and Sindh where he had no special identity. In June 1944, when World War II was about to end, Gandhiji was released from jail. After leaving the jail, he met Jinnah several times to bridge the gap between the Congress and the Muslim League and tried to convince them. At the same time, in 1945, the ‘Labor Party’ government started to rule in Britain. This government was completely in favor of Indian independence. At the same time, Viceroy Lord Wavell organized several meetings between the representatives of the Congress and the Muslim League.
Criticism of the Quit India movement
In the then Indian political parties ‘Communist Party’ criticized the movement. The Muslim League also criticized the Quit Movement in India’, saying that “The movement is not a goal of Indian independence, but the establishment of a Hindu kingdom in India, due to which the movement is fatal to the Muslims.” Even Muslim League and Liberals did not participate in this movement. Sir Tezbahadur Sapru called this proposal “unthinkable and untimely”. Bhimrao Ambedkar called it an ‘uncompromising full and insane work’. The Hindu Mahasabha and the Akali Movement also criticized it.
Failure of Cabinet Mission
Gandhiji had outlined the ‘Quit India Movement’ in a very organized manner. He said, “We will either liberate India or will be eradicated in this endeavor.” In India, in the beginning of 1946, the elections to the provincial legislatures were renewed. Congress got huge success in these elections. The Muslim League got a huge majority of seats reserved for Muslims. At the same time in the summer of 1946, the Cabinet Mission reached India. The mission tried to persuade the Congress and the Muslim League on such a federal system, In which limited autonomy is given to different provinces within India. But this attempt of the cabinet mission proved unsuccessful. Due to the failure of this mission, Jinnah declared a direct action day in support of the League demand for the establishment of Pakistan.
The day of August 16, 1946, was fixed for it, but on that day the struggle started in Calcutta. This violence spread from Calcutta to Bengal, Bihar, and Punjab. In many places Hindus, Muslims were targeted at many places.
Impact of movement
The ‘Quit India Movement’ has not been able to give India independence, but its far-reaching result is pleasant. That is why it was called “the last great effort to be made for the independence of India”. After the revolt of August 1942, the question was only to decide what the nature of government would be after independence. Given the vastness of the Movement of 1942, the British had been convinced that they had lost the legal right to governance. This movement has created many countries of the world with Indian citizenship. The then Martial Chiang Kai-Shek of China wrote to the President of Roosevelt United States of America on July 25, 1942, “The best policy for the British is to give India complete freedom.” Roosevelt also supported it. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel wrote about the movement: “Such a rebellion has never happened in the history of British rule in India, as happened in the last three years, we are proud of the reaction of the people.”
The government imposed a complete defect on the rebellions during the ‘Quit India Movement’ on February 13 , 1943 AD on Mahatma Gandhi and Congress . Gandhiji, rejecting these baseless flaws, said, “My statement was in the bounds of non-violence.” He said- “Every non-violent soldier of freedom paper do ‘on a piece of clothes or Die’ should stick writing the slogan, so if Satyagraha so when it died from other factors depending on the mark Which can not be believed in non-violence. ” Gandhiji demanded fair inquiry from the government to prove the allegations leveled against him. On February 10 , 1943, when the government refused to pay attention to it . They started fasting for 21 days. On the thirteenth day of fasting, the situation of Gandhiji became absolutely fragile. Government of British India did not release them and waited for his death. Some historians believe that sandalwood was arranged for their funeral in ‘Aga Khan Palace’. In protest against this barbaric policy of the government, Sir Modi, Sir A.N., a member of the Viceroy council. The government and the AAP resigned.
Lord Mountbatten was appointed Viceroy of India in February 1947 , in place of Lord Wavell. Mountbatten created an atmosphere of the last round of talks between Hindus and Muslims. When their efforts for reconciliation also failed, they announced that British India would be given independence, but it would also be divided. August 15 was fixed for power transfers. On that day people celebrated happiness in different parts of India. In Delhi, when the President of the Constituent Assembly began the meeting of the Constituent Assembly giving Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi the title of the Father of the Nation, the melodious sound continued for long. The crowd gathered outside was shouting Gandhiji.
Gain of independence
Mahatma Gandhi was not included in the festivities celebrated on August 15, 1947 in the national capital of Delhi . He was in Calcutta at this time . He did not participate in any program there as he had fought for so many days for the freedom he had received at a very high cost. The partition of the nation was not less than a nightmare for them. Hindus and Muslims were bent on cutting each other’s neck. Gandhiji told Hindus , Sikhs and Muslims that instead of paying attention to the past, instead of paying attention to their sufferings, adopt the example of mutual brotherhood with one another.