Independence Day in India is a day when we pay tribute to our great national leaders and freedom fighters, who have sacrificed their lives and livelihood, to liberate India from British rule. On August 15, 1947, the people of India became free from British rule.On 15th August, the Tricolor flag is hoisted and illuminated on government buildings.
After the battle of Plassey in 23rd June 1757, the English state was established in India.The prophecy spread throughout the country, and the wave of passion started to gain freedom among the people. Also, Lord Canning passed the General Recruitment Act in 1856 AD. According to that act, Indian soldiers had to write down while joining in the Army that wherever the government sent them to battle, they had to go. This decision led to increased dissatisfaction among Indian soldiers. At that time, there were three lakh troops in the company’s army. Only five thousand soldiers were European. All the other soldiers were from India
Indian Rebellion of 1857
When there was an atmosphere of dissatisfaction around the country, then the East India Company government decided to supply new rifle instead of the old one. In these rifles cartridges, pig’s and cow’s fat were used. The soldiers had to cut cartridges with their teeth to fill the rifles. These cartridges made angry to the Hindu and Muslim soldiers. They felt that the government wanted to destroy their religion. So when these cartridges were distributed to the soldiers of Meerut, 85 soldiers refused to use. For this reason, they were sentenced to severe punishment and imprisoned. On this behavior of the government, Indian soldiers revolted on 10 May 1857; The Slogan was “Har-Har Mahadev, Maro Firangi Ko”.
After that, they broke the prison and released the comrades. The soldiers also killed the English men and women who were in the city. The next day, A large number of soldier moved to Delhi.Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah took the leadership of the rebellion, and Bahadur Shah hoisted the Mughal flag on government buildings. The British in Delhi were slaughtered, and their property was robbed. In the meantime, rebellions arose in many places like Lucknow, Aligarh, Kanpur, Banaras, and Ruhalkhand. At that time the English army was not in Delhi. Therefore, Indian soldiers easily took control of Delhi.
The leaders who introduced their patriotism and bravery in this rebellion were Mangal Pandey, Nana Saheb, Queen of Jhansi, Tatya Tope, Kunwar Singh, Azim Ulla Khan and Emperor Bahadur Shah. Nana Saheb led the rebellion in Kanpur and defeated the English commander and took the fort in his possession. The battle continued for many days in Lucknow. They killed The Chief Commissioner Sir Henry Lotus. In Central, India remained the primary centers of rebellion. Maharani Laxmibai of Jhansi and his soldiers fought against the British in the fort. Fierce battles were fought in Kalpi and Gwalior. Tatya Tope and some other heroes also took part in this rebellion. But Queen Laxmibai of Jhansi received assassinated in this first struggle for independence. This incident broke the courage of Indian rebels, and the British were captured in Central India.
Guerrilla war in India
In Bihar, Kunwar Singh made rebellion against the British at the age of 80. He adopted the guerrilla war system and defeated the British general with the help of his brother Amar Singh and friend Mark Singh. He recovered his capital, Jagadishpur. After his death, his brother continued the struggle. Governor General Canning demanded help from Bombay, Madras, Punjab, etc. states to suppress the revolution. The British spread rumors to divide Hindu Muslims. After that, by receiving assistance from several princely states like Hyderabad, Gwalior, Patiala, Nabha, Jind, Nepal, three British generals, Henry, Bernal, and Nicholson surrounded Delhi, but could not take the possession of Delhi for three months. In the end, General Nicholson conquered Delhi.The Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar was arrested and sent to Rangoon (now Yangon) where he died. Although this attempt of Indians did not succeed, even then, the rebellion of 1857 was a widespread mutiny, in which all sections of the Indian public participated. It was a civil uprising, aimed to achieve independence.That’s why the rebellion of 1857 is called the first freedom struggle of independence.
Reign of British Crown in India
Soon after the rebellion of 1857, the government of England took over the reigns of the Indian state from the East India Company. In 1880, Gladstone became the Prime Minister of England. He appointed Lord Ripon as Governor General of India. Although between 1857 and 1880, many governor generals, Canning, Mao, Latin, etc. ruled in India, none of them were respected like Lord Ripon. It ‘s hard to get an example of what he did for the advancement and welfare of Indians. He had to face opposition from his countrymen for his many administrative tasks, but he did not care for them at all.
Lord Ripon made the rule of the census in India.He did the first census in 1981, which is done every ten years so far. In 1882, Lord Ripon made several improvements. He improved the municipal board and education, decentralization of economic powers. Education, police, prison, press, and public works were kept in the provincial list.Land tax, forest stamp, etc. were kept in the list, The income received by these issues was divided among the central government and the provincial governments. Lord Ripon increased the number of non-official members.
Before Lord Ripon arrived, Lord Litton passed the Vernacular Press Act. Through the act, the newspapers appearing in Indian languages had strict restrictions to published anything. The Indian public had called this Act a ‘Ghala Ghantu Act’. Lord Ripon ended this act and provided complete independence to newspapers published in Indian languages. Now they became equal to the papers in the English language. Lord Ripon appointed a commission of 21 members to improve education. There was a lot of progress in the education sectors. Additionally, Lord Ripon encouraged free trade and ended the duty on foreign goods. Lord Ripon introduced Albert Bill in Indian Council in 1883 AD. These led to the British against the Lord, but the Indians praised Lord Ripon.Before the act, the British insulted Indian judges by calling them, Kalute Babu. Indians also gave a cracking answer to the British in the Town Hall of Calcutta. Mr. Lal Mohan Ghosh ridiculed the British for calling them Kodi officers.
Formation of Indian National Congress
Gopal Krishna encourages the nations to take pride in the country and motivated them to organize. He also the developed the political consciousness. As a result, the British India Association, India League, Indian Association, Poona Public Meeting formed many provincial institutions. These organizations soon considered the creation of a national organization in India. Meanwhile, the retired member of the Indian Civil Service Mr. A. O Hume wrote an open letter to the graduates of the University of Calcutta, in which he inspired the Indians to form a union for their moral, social and political revival. The Indians welcomed this letter of Hume. In 1884 AD the Indian National Union was formed. In a session of Bombay in 1885, the name of this institution was declared as Indian National Congress on the advice of Dada Bhai Norozi. This organization continued to work under the supervision of moderate leaders until 1905. Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Dada Bhai Norozi, Ferozeshah Mehta, Surendranath Banerjee, Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya were the prominent leaders of this organization.
Break Down of Congress
In 1905, the Congress organized in Banaras. The atmosphere changed due to the partition of Bengal. Therefore, Lokmanya Tilak and his supporters suggested adopting an aggressive policy against the British. Congress did not agree with this suggestion. By which, two groups were formed in the Congress. In 1906 AD, during the session of Calcutta, there was a collision between two clusters. But due to the presence of Dada Bhai Norozi, this fiction was stopped. Congress’s ‘Surat Session’ was held in 1907 AD. A fight between the two opposite parties took place in that session, and soon it took the form of a riot. These made the Congress divided into two sides.
Between 1905 and 1919, the national movement was in the hands of the militants. The leaders of the protesters were Bal, Lal, Pal (Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai, and Vipin Chandra Pal).
Disheartening about the policy of liberals, Lala Lajpat Rai had said that After twenty continuous agitations we got stones instead of bread. We will not beg for the British for longer periods of time nor will we plead in front of them.
Under the Registration Act (1907), Indians had to write their names in the offices like criminals, and their fingerprints had to be printed. Lord Curzon’s Suppression Policy (1898 to 1905) had done much inhumanity on Indians. In his speech, he used to describe Indians as very insulting words. Indian University Act, took many such steps to weaken Indian solidarity and frustrate Indian sentiments. As the Declaration of Bengal dissolution was declared in 1907, one of the group became active. In December 1907, he tried to bomb the Bengal governor’s car. Then fired on the magistrate of Dhaka. Similar incidents took place in Punjab and Maharashtra.
Establishment of Ghadar Party
In 1913, America settled Indians established the Ghadar Party. The prominent leaders of this party were Sohan Singh Bhakna, Lala Hardayal, Baba Baskha Singh, P. Kashiram and Udham Singh. Thousands of Indians from this party came to India from the US. They inspired soldiers to revolt in Lahore, Ferozepur, Ambala, Meerut, Agra They selected the day of Gadar on 25th February 1915. But the betrayal of Krupal Singh failed this plan. Like the Gadar Party, the Indo-German Mission also intended to liberate India by getting the support of Turkey and Kabul and established a temporary India government, whose President was King Mahendra Pratap and Prime Minister Barkat Allah. But due to not being friendly, these Patriots could not succeed too. Fortunately, in South Africa, Indians found a leader in Mahatma Gandhi who organized all Indians. They launched Satyagraha movement and stopped the laws imposed on Indians.
In the First World War, the British had asked for help from the Indians and promised to give some comfort. Indians helped the Britishers from Dilanjan, But the British did not fulfill their promise. The government passed the Roll Act to suppress the Hindustani. According to this act, the government could make any person arrested without reason. He also did not have the right to argue in his favor.
Mahatma Gandhi initiated the Satyagraha movement against the Act on March 13, 1919. But unfortunately, during the agitation, Ahmad Nagar became a mess in Delhi and Punjab, due to which Mahatma Gandhi had to suspend the agitation. On April 13, 1919, twenty-five thousand citizens from the Jallianwala Bagh gathered for the meeting. The English General Dyer surrounded them and shot them, and thousands of unarmed people fired. Following this incident, the Indians decided that the British had no right to rule over India. Full Swaraj was announced on January 26, 1930. In Punjab, Bhagat Singh and his colleagues laid the foundations of young India. But this patriot could not succeed too.
Gandhi marched the dough to break the salt laws. After breaking the law, the British had arrested Gandhi. But the movement in the country got powerful, so Gandhiji was released. The British called round table conference three times in London, but Gandhiji returned only disappointed every time.
World War II broke out on September 3, 1939. The Congress session was held on 8th August, 1942 in Bombay. The “Quit India” proposal passed in it. Pandit Motilal Nehru and Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru also did a lot of work for independence. The English government resorted to suppression policy. Meanwhile Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose tried to liberate India by staying out of India. His idea was to take advantage of World War II. He founded the Azad Hind Fauj. And the slogan “Come to Delhi”. But Netaji was killed in an accident, so this movement also failed. Then on 18 February 1946, the military revolt broke up in Bombay. The soldiers came out of their barracks and chased the British troops and killed the English soldiers for five days. In the end, it became apparent to the British that now they can not keep India as their slave.
On 23 March 1946, the then prime minister of England sent high officials to solve the problems the India. They talked to Indian leaders and Viceroy. On August 14, 1946, Viceroy requested Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru to form a temporary government at the center. But the Muslim League adopted the demand for Pakistan. They follow the path of direct action. On August 16, a lot of bloodshed in Calcutta, thousands of people were killed, and millions of property were destroyed. In February 1947, British Prime Minister gave a statement, according to which the declaration of independence of India in 1948. Along with this statement, Lord Boulevard was called back to England and replaced by Lord Mountbatten as Viceroy of India. Lord Mountbatten considered better the partition of India. Congress leaders accepted this idea, and
On July 4, 1947, the Indian Independence Bill was introduced in the Parliament of England. On July 16, 1947, both the Houses of Parliament passed this bill, and on July 18, 1947, the crown of England also gave its approval.
The path of freedom
In the 20th century, Indian National Congress and other political organizations led a nationwide movement under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. Mahatma Gandhi gave strong support to ‘Civil Disobedience Nonviolence Movement’ in contrast to the violent struggle. They protest by March, prayer meetings, the boycott of foreign goods and encouraging Indian products. Indian People supported these paths. The local campaign changed to ‘National Movement.’ Some of these main events – ‘Non-cooperation movement,’ ‘Dandi March,’ ‘Civil Disobedience Campaign’ and ‘Quit India Movement’ were. Soon it became clear that India would no longer be under the control of colonial powers and the British rulers accepted the demand of Indian leaders.British decided that this right should be handed over to India on August 15, 1947.
Partition of India
On 15th August 1947, India and Pakistan became independent in two parts. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru hoisted the tricolor flag on the Red Fort on 15 August 1947. Independence Day is celebrated on 15th August every year from that day onwards. The Tricolor flag is hoisted and lighted on government buildings. The Prime Minister wraps at the Red Fort at 7 a.m. and gives a speech to his countrymen on his country’s policy. Thousands of people go to the Red Fort to listen to the speech. Independence Day is also celebrated in schools and desserts are also distributed among children. On August 14, at 8 pm, the President sends messages to his countrymen, which is broadcast on radio and television.
Declaration of Independent India
At 11.00 a.m. on August 14, 1947, a meeting was started by the Constituent Assembly to celebrate India’s independence. As soon as 12.00 pm at the clock, India got independence and India became an independent country. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of independent India, gave his famous speech ‘meeting with destiny’.
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru Said,
As soon as it happened at midnight, and when the world was asleep, India would have been awake and would move towards its independence. There comes a moment which is rare in history. Are we brave and wise enough to take advantage of this opportunity and are we ready to accept the challenge of the future?
After this, the tricolor flag was hoisted, and the national anthem was sung from the Red Fort.Thanks for Staying with us. Do you have any question about Indian Independence history? If so, Feel free to ask us.